State of Emergency Executive Decree 667 dated July 23, 2016 has closed down 15 universities in Turkey. Executive Decrees issued until date have dismissed 5,644 academics; when the employees of the closed universities are added, the aggregate figure reaches 7,800. Ensuing executive decrees further limited the autonomy of universities, sharply restricting the rights and freedoms of university employees. The supervision and oversight on national education and private education institutions have been tightened. Founded in 2016 with many privileges and described by some as a “parallel education system”, the Turkey Maarif Foundation has also been strengthened via executive decrees and given new powers